Right to Education

Right to Education

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The NGO Child Rights and You (CRY) conducted a study across 71 districts in 13 states, namely, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu (South); Bihar, Jharkhand, Orissa, West Bengal (East); Gujarat, Maharashtra (West), Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh (North) and in 3 Metros, namely, Delhi, Kolkata, Mumbai and Hyderabad.

The data collection was carried out by CRY's project partners and CRY Volunteers (in some schools in the Metropolitan Cities) on the basis of an "Observation Schedule" provided to them from non-CRY intervention areas for greater objectivity in the study. The data was collected in the month of September-October 2012 in the sample states and cities. The selection of the states was purposive based on the presence of CRY in those states.

Although data was collected for 747 schools, from the point of view of RTE implementation only those schools were included for analysis which were primary schools and upper primary schools. The analysis and presentation of the data was done at three levels-1. Regionally (North, East, West, South); 2. Location-wise (Rural/Urban); 3. Social presence (SC, ST and Others).

According to the study entitled 'Learning Blocks' by Child Rights and You (CRY), June, 2013,


•    The study reveals that 11% schools did not have toilets. Only 18% schools had separate toilets for girls. In 34% schools toilets were observed to be in bad condition or unusable. Overall, most of the schools did not have separate toilets for girls and boys. Around 49% schools had common toilets for staff and students.

Drinking water:

•    20% schools did not have availability of safe drinking water. 12% schools had source of drinking water (tap/hand pump) outside school premises.

Separate room for the Head Teacher:

•    Around 58% schools did not have separate room for head teacher.

Kitchens and Mid Day Meals:

•    It is mandatory to have a separate kitchen in every school preparaing the Mid Day Meal inside school premises. But in 18% schools, the Mid Day Meal was either not cooked inside a designated kitchen or did not have a kitchen space at all.

Playground and Play Materials:

•    However, 63% schools under the study did not have a playground. 60% sample schools overall reported absence of play materials.

School Boundary Walls:

•    Around 60% schools did not have boundary wall, damaged boundary wall or boundary wall was under construction.


•    The study shows that 74% schools did not have a library. In schools which did have a library, around 84 did not have activity books and 80% did not have story and general knowledge books.

Age-appropriate Admission:

•    As per the findings of the study, only 13% schools provided age appropriate admission. In most of these schools, special coaching or training was provided to the child who received age appropriate admission.

•    Although not required by the Act, proof of age was asked for in 61% schools and in 47% of these schools it was mandatory.

•    Against the norms of the RTE Act, 66% schools demanded documents for proof of previous studies at the time of admission. Around 46% of these schools asked for transfer certificate from children at the time of admission - also against the law.

School Management Committees:

•    9% schools did not have School Management Committees and from the schools which had formed an SMC, 9% schools could not provide minutes of SMC meeting. In around 45% primary schools (PS) and 38% upper primary schools (UPS) parents were not members of SMC.  In around 59% PS and 54% UPS teachers were not members of SMC.

•    In 44% Primary School and 32% Upper Primary schools women were not members of SMCs. In 52% Primary Schools and 41% Upper Primary Schools parents from disadvantaged groups were not present. In 51% Primary Schools and 47% Upper Primary Schools elected representatives were not members of their SMCs. 55% sample schools under the study reported SMC not involved in preparation of school development plans. In 53% schools overall it was reported that SMCs were not involved in monitoring utilization of financial grants.

Pupil-Teacher Ratio:

•    The RTE mandates one teacher each for 30 students in lower primary schools and for 35 students in the upper primary schools. The study reveals that the Pupil-Teacher Ratio was calculated as 1:39 for Primary Schools and 1:40 for Upper Primary Schools.

•    The study reveals that 21% PS and 17% Upper Primary School reported involvement of teachers in some or other activities related to preparation of the Mid Day Meal - which is against the law.

•    Only 11% Upper Primary School reported the presence of part-time instructors for art/culture/music and work education. 15% Upper Primary School reported having part-time instructors for health and physical education.


•    Non-availability of head teachers was reported in 28% PS and 31% Upper Primary School.

•    Only 35% Primary School reported having teachers who had passed their 12th or holding a Diploma in Education. Further, 56% Primary School reported having teachers who were graduates or post graduates. Moreover, 37% Upper Primary School reported having teachers who had passed their 12th or holding a Diploma in Education and 50% Upper Primary School teachers graduate or post graduate.

Rural Expert

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