Please click here to access the key findings of the Public Accounts Committee (2014-15) report on ICDS Scheme of Ministry of Women & Child Development, PAC no. 2045, Fourteenth Report (presented to Lok Sabha on 27 April, 2015 and Rajya Sabha on 28 April 2015). Please click here to access the full PAC report on ICDS.
The NSS 68th Round Report entitled Nutritional Intake in India, 2011-12 (published in October 2014) is based on information collected during 2011-12 from 7469 villages and 5268 urban blocks spread over the entire country. Two different schedules were used to collect information on consumption, the first being canvassed in 101662 households and the second in 101651 households.
The key findings of the NSS 68th Round Report entitled Nutritional Intake in India, 2011-12 (published in October 2014), Report No. 560(68/1.0/3) are as follows (please click here to access):
Intake of Dietary Energy (based on Schedule Type 2*)
• Average dietary energy intake per person per day was 2233 Kcal for rural India and 2206 Kcal for urban India. All the major States had per capita rural/urban levels of calorie intake within 11% (plus or minus) of the all-India rural/urban average.
• In each sector average calorie intake increased steadily with monthly per capita expenditure (MPCE) class. The difference between the lowest fractile class (poorest 5% of population ranked by MPCE level) and the next fractile class (the next 5%) in per capita calorie intake was as high as 183 Kcal per day in rural India.
• About 59.5% of the all-India rural population had energy intake in the range 80-120% of 2700 Kcal/consumer unit/day (a level used in NSS tabulation for comparisons), that is, 2160-3240 Kcal/consumer unit/day.
• The all-India urban calorie intake distribution was similar to the rural, with slightly higher numbers of households in the top and bottom intake classes. Inter-State differences in energy intake distributions, especially at the lower end, were much less prominent in the urban sector of India than in the rural.
• Among the bottom 5% of rural population ranked by MPCE, 57% of households had calorie intake below 2160 Kcal/consumer unit/day, the proportion falling to 39% for the next 5%, and continuing to fall until it dropped to only about 2% for the top 5% of population.
• Similarly, the proportion of urban households with calorie intake below 2160 Kcal/consumer unit/day was 59% for the bottom 5% of population, falling to 47% for the next 5%, and reaching 1.6% for the top 5% of population.
• The share of energy intake contributed by cereals was about 57% for rural India and 48% for urban India. The contribution of cereals varied across the major States from 42% (Punjab) to 70% (Odisha) in the rural sector and from 39% (Haryana) to 60% (Odisha and Bihar) in the urban sector.
• The contribution of cereals to calorie intake was seen to fall progressively with rise in MPCE level, from 70% for the bottom 5% of population to 42% for the top 5% ranked by MPCE in rural India, and from about 66% to about 29% in urban India.
• Non-cereal food contributed about 43% of calorie intake in rural India. The percentage break-up of this part of calorie intake (the part coming from non-cereal food) was: oils and fats: 22%; miscellaneous food, food products and beverages: 21%; milk and milk
• Non-cereal food contributed about 52% of calorie intake in urban India. On the whole, the pattern of calorie intake from non-cereal food was similar in rural and urban areas, though the share of roots and tubers was, at 7%, somewhat lower.
• The share of “milk and milk products” in calorie intake contributed by non-cereals, which was between 8% and 27% in the urban sector of all the major States, ranged from 3% to 36% in the rural sector, being 7% or less in 4 major States.
• “Sugar and honey” usually had a higher contribution to calorie intake from non-cereal food in States with higher average levels of living.
Intake of Protein and Fat (based on Schedule Type 2*)
• At the all-India level protein intake per person per day was 60.7gm in the rural sector and 60.3gm in the urban sector
• The range of inter-State variation for major States was appreciably wider in the rural sector, where per capita intake per day varied from about 52gm (Chhattisgarh) to about 73gm (Haryana), than in the urban, where it varied from 55gm (Assam) to about 69gm (Haryana).
• In some of the poorer States, protein intake was markedly lower in the rural sector than in the urban; examples are Jharkhand (rural: 54.7gm, urban: 60.3gm) and Chhattisgarh (rural: 51.7gm, urban: 55.8gm). On the other hand, in the States with the highest levels of protein intake, viz., Haryana, Rajasthan and Punjab, it was the rural population and not the urban that had higher protein intake (about 4-5gm higher).
• Average protein intake per capita per day was seen to rise steadily with MPCE level in rural India from 43gm for the bottom 5% of population ranked by MPCE to 91gm for the top 5%, and in urban India from 44gm for the bottom 5% to about 87gm for the top 5%.
• The share of cereals in protein intake was 58% for rural and 49% for urban India.
• The share of milk and milk products in protein intake was 10% in rural India and 12% in urban India. It was highest in Haryana (rural: 27%; urban: 22%) and Punjab (rural and urban: 23%), and between 14% and 18% in Rajasthan and Gujarat. Among the 17 major States, these 4 States and Uttar Pradesh (rural: 11%; urban: 13%) were the only 5 States where the contribution of milk and milk products to protein intake was higher than the national average.
• The share of meat, fish and egg in protein intake was only 7% in rural India and 9% in urban India. The share was 26% in both rural and urban Kerala, and was 10% or more in only 5 other major States: West Bengal, Assam, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, and Karnataka.
• The contribution of cereals to protein intake is seen to fall steadily with rise in MPCE from 72% for the bottom 5% of population to 42% for the top 5% in rural India and from 68% to 31% in urban India. On the other hand, the contribution of milk and milk products to protein intake is seen to rise from 3% for the bottom fractile class of population in the rural sector to 16% in the highest, and from 4% to 17% in the urban sector. The contribution of egg, fish and meat to protein intake, too, climbs quite noticeably across MPCE classes from 2% to 12% in rural India and from 4% to 11% in urban India.
• Average fat intake for the country as a whole was about 46gm per person per day in the rural sector and 58gm in the urban sector. Considerable inter-State variation, however, existed, especially in rural India. In both sectors, per capita intake was lowest in Odisha and Assam. The States with highest fat intake were Haryana (rural: 69gm; urban: 75gm), Gujarat (rural: 62gm; urban: 73gm) and Punjab (rural: 70gm; urban: 69gm).
• Urban fat intake per person per day exceeded rural intake by 9gm or more in nine of the major States and by more than 13gm in West Bengal and Jharkhand. Rural intake exceeded urban in only one major State – Punjab.
• Per capita fat intake was about 100g in the top fractile class of the urban sector and about 27gm in the lowest fractile class. In the rural sector the intake of the top fractile class was 92gm while that of the bottom class was 21gm.
• At all-India level, in contrast to the remarkable closeness of average protein intake across the rural-urban divide, average urban fat intake was noticeably higher than rural intake in all the fractile classes.
Trends in Nutritional Intake (based on Schedule Type 1*)
• Comparison of estimates for India and the major States from NSS surveys between 1983 and 2011-12 shows calorie intake declining in both sectors after 1999-2000, the decline being sharper in the urban sector, but recovering again to regain a level of about 2100 Kcal per person per day in the rural sector and about 2060 Kcal in the urban in 2011-12. At the level of individual States, a rise in average calorie intake level between 2004-05 and 2011-12 is noted in rural areas of most of the major States.
• The proportion of households with calorie intake under 2160 Kcal per consumer unit per day, which in both sectors increased over the period 1993-94 to 2004-05, is seen to have subsequently declined appreciably to reach about 20% in the rural sector and 23% in the urban. On the whole, the distribution of dietary energy intake appears to have experienced a reduction in dispersion since the 1990s.
• Over the 18-year period from 1993-94 to 2011-12, the share of cereals in total calorie intake has declined by nearly 10 percentage points in the rural sector and nearly 7 percentage points in the urban. On the other hand, the share of oils and fats has risen by about 3½ percentage points in both sectors.
• In rural India as a whole, protein intake per person per day has definitely declined since 1993-94. However, the decline at the all-India level shows signs of flattening out, being only 0.5gm less in 2011-12 compared to 2004-05. The decline in rural protein intake since 1993-94 has been prominent in Rajasthan (a fall of 11gm), Haryana (about 10gm), and Punjab (8gm). In the urban sector the decline between 1993-94 and 2011-12 is less marked than in the rural. In both sectors, all the southern States except Karnataka show slight increases in protein intake per person during this period.
• An unmistakable rising trend in per capita fat intake is visible not only at all-India level but in every major State. For rural India the rise has been from 31.4gm per day in 1993-94 to 41.6gm in 2011-12 and for urban India, from 42.0gm to 52.5gm– a rise of over 10gm in both sectors over the 18-year period. In both sectors, all the major States show a rise ranging from 5-6gm to 17-18gm during this period.
• Over the 18 years preceding 2011-12, the contribution of cereals to protein intake has fallen by about 7 percentage points in rural India and nearly 6 percentage points in urban India while the shares of the other major food groups have all risen slightly.
* Note: The schedules of enquiry used were of two types. The two types had the same item break-up but differed in reference periods used for collection of consumption data. Schedule Type 1, as far as reference periods were concerned, was a repeat of the schedule used in most quinquennial rounds. For certain categories of relatively infrequently purchased items, including clothing and consumer durables, it collected information on consumption during the last 30 days and the last 365 days. For other categories, including all food and fuel and consumer services, it used a 30-days reference period. Schedule Type 2 used "last 365 days" (only) for the infrequently purchased categories, "last 7 days" for some categories of food items, as well as pan, tobacco and intoxicants, and "last 30 days" for other food items, fuel, and the rest. This was in line with the recommendations of an Expert Group that had been formed for the purpose of suggesting the most suitable reference period for each item of consumption.