Poverty and inequality
According to the report entitled Global Multidimensional Poverty Index 2019: Illuminating Inequalities (released in July, 2019), which has been produced by Oxford Poverty & Human Development Initiative (OPHI) and United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) (please click here and here to access):
• India's multidimensional headcount ratio (H) viz. the proportion or incidence of people (within a given population) who experience multiple deprivations has reduced from 55.1 percent to 27.9 percent during the last 10 years viz. between 2005-06 and 2015-16.
• The total number of poor people in India, who face multiple deprivations in education, health and living standards, has fallen by 271 million in the last one decade viz. from 640.6 to 369.5 million between 2005-06 and 2015-16. However, the population in multidimensional poverty has increased from 369.5 million in 2015-16 to 373.7 million in 2017 viz. by 4.2 million.
• Intensity of poverty (A), which measures deprivations that multidimensionally poor people face on an average, has declined from 51.3 percent to 43.9 percent between 2005-06 and 2015-16.
• Multidimensional poverty index (MPI) of the country, which is the product of multidimensional headcount ratio (H) and intensity (or breadth) of poverty (A), has reduced from 0.283 to 0.123 between 2005-06 and 2015-16.
• Proportion of the population in severe multidimensional poverty viz. those with a deprivation score of 50 percent or more is 8.8 percent. The proportion of the population at risk of suffering multiple deprivations viz. those with a deprivation score of 20–33 percent is 19.3 percent.
• Latest available data shows that the proportion of population living below the national poverty line is 21.9 percent and the proportion of population living below $ 1.90 a day in terms of purchasing power parity (PPP) is 21.2 percent.
• The percentage of population that is multidimensionally poor and deprived in nutrition, cooking fuel, sanitation and housing are 21.2 percent, 26.2 percent, 24.6 percent and 23.6 percent, respectively.
• In Jharkhand, multidimensional poverty (H) reduced from 74.9 percent to 46.5 percent between 2005-06 and 2015-16. India strongly improved assets, cooking fuel, sanitation and nutrition.
• India demonstrates the clearest pro-poor pattern at the subnational level: the poorest regions reduced multidimensional poverty the fastest in absolute terms. In India poverty reduction in rural areas outpaced that in urban areas demonstrating pro-poor development.
• In India there were 271 million fewer people in multidimensional poverty in 2016 than in 2006, while in Bangladesh the number dropped by 19 million between 2004 and 2014.
• Of 10 selected countries for which changes over time were analysed, India and Cambodia reduced their MPI values the fastest and they did not leave the poorest groups behind.
• Child poverty fell markedly faster than adult poverty in Bangladesh, Cambodia, Haiti, India and Peru.
• In terms of gender disparities, 9 percent of boys in South Asia are out of school and live in a multidimensionally poor household, compared with 10.7 percent of girls. In India, there is a higher percentage of girls who are multidimensionally poor and out of school than boys. However, the figures for India are lower than the South Asian average for both boys and girls.