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According to WHO Global Report: Mortality Attributable to Tobacco (2012), please click here to access: 

• Globally 12% of all deaths among adults aged 30 years and over were attributed to tobacco as compared with 16% in India, 17% in Pakistan and 31% in Bangladesh. 

• In India, the death rate from non-communicable diseases (NCDs) [1096 per 100,000 population] was about 3.3 times that for communicable diseases [336 per 100,000]. Tobacco was responsible for 9% of all NCDs as compared with 2% of all communicable disease related deaths. 

• The death rate due to tobacco in Indian men was 206 [per 100,000 men aged 30 years and over] as compared with 13 [per 100,000 women aged 30 years and over] for women. The proportion of deaths attributable to tobacco was almost 12% for men and 1% for women in India.    

• Within the NCDs, ischaemic heart disease accounted for 329 deaths per 100,000 population aged 30 years and over, with 5% of these deaths attributed to tobacco in India. Cancer of the trachea, bronchus and lung accounted for 16 deaths per 100,000 population but with 58% of these deaths attributed to tobacco. 

• Within the communicable disease group, deaths attributed to tobacco accounted for 5% of all lower respiratory infection deaths and 4% of all tuberculosis deaths in India.  

• The regions with the highest proportion of deaths atrributable to tobacco are the Americas and the European regions where tobacco has been used for a longer period of time. 

• 71% of all lung cancer deaths globally are attributable to tobacco use. 42% of all chronic deaths globally are attributable to tobacco use. 

• Direct tobacco smoking is currently responsible for the death of about 5 million people worldwide each year with many deaths occuring prematurely. An additional 600,000 people are estimated to die from the effects of second-hand smoke.

• In next 2 decades, the annual death from tobacco globally is expected to rise to over 8 million, with more than 80% of those deaths projected to occur in low-and middle-income countries. 

• If effective measures are not urgently taken, tpbacco could in the 21st century kill over 1 billion people worldwide. Tobacco kills more than tuberculosis, HIV/ AIDS and malaria combined.

 

According to the report titled The Growing Danger of Non-Communicable Diseases: Acting Now to Reverse Course (2011), September, The World Bank, please click here to access:


• Heart disease, cancer, diabetes, chronic respiratory conditions, and other non-communicable diseases (NCDs) increasingly threaten the physical health and economic security of many lower-and middle-income countries.

• The change in mortality and disease levels will be particularly substantial in Sub-Saharan Africa, where NCDs will account for 46 percent of all deaths by 2030, up from 28 percent in 2008, and in South Asia, which will see the share of deaths from NCDs increase from 51 to 72 percent during the same period. More than 30 percent of these deaths will be premature and preventable. These lower-income countries will, at the same time, continue to grapple with the widespread prevalence of communicable diseases such as HIV, malaria, tuberculosis, and mother and child conditions, and so face a “double burden” of disease not experienced by their wealthier counterparts.

• The potential cost of NCDs to economies, health systems, households and individuals in middle- and lower-income countries is high. In many middle- and lower-income countries, NCDs are affecting populations at younger ages, resulting in longer periods of ill-health, premature deaths and greater loss of productivity that is so vital for development.

• Much of the rise in NCDs in developing countries is attributable to modifiable risk factors such as physical inactivity, malnutrition in the first thousand days of life and later an unhealthy diet (including excessive salt, fat, and sugar intake), tobacco use, alcohol abuse, and exposure to environmental pollution.

• Country evidence suggests that more than half of the NCD burden could be avoided through effective health promotion and disease prevention programs that tackle such risk factors. Particularly effective at very low costs are measures to curb tobacco, such as taxes, as indicated in the “WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control”, and to reduce salt in processed and semi processed foods.

• By 2030, cancer incidence is projected to increase by 70 percent in middle-income countries and 82 percent in lower-income countries.

• While increases in NCD-related mortality and ill-health in part reflect countries’ successes in extending lives and curbing communicable diseases, a significant part of the increase is a result of modifiable risk factors, many of which are linked to modernization, urbanization, and lifestyle changes.

• The rise of NCDs amongst younger populations may jeopardize many countries’ “demographic dividend”, including the economic benefits expected to be generated during the period when a relatively larger part of the population is of working age. Instead, these countries will have to contend with the costs associated with populations that are living with longer episodes of illhealth.

• Cardiovascular disease is already a major cause of death and disability in South Asia, where the average age of first-time heart attack sufferers is 53 compared to 59 in the rest of the world.

• A recent study illustrated the economic impact of NCDs in India by estimating that if NCDs were “eliminated”, the country’s 2004 GDP would have been 4 to 10 percent greater.

• The share of out-of-pocket household health expenditures on NCDs in India increased from 32 percent to 47 percent between 1995–1996 and 2004. Moreover, 40 percent of these expenditures were financed by borrowing and sales of assets, increasing the household’s financial vulnerability. NCDs also increase the risk of households incurring “catastrophic” health costs. In South Asia, the chance of incurring catastrophic hospitalization expenditures was 160 percent higher for cancer patients and 30 percent higher for those with cardiovascular diseases than it was for those with a communicable disease requiring hospitalization .

• Because of their specific characteristics, NCDs affect adults—often in their productive years, require costly long term treatment and care, and often are accompanied by some degree of disability. Therefore, they could potentially have greater socio-economic impact than other health conditions. Increased NCD levels can: reduce labor supply and outputs, increase costs to employers (from absenteeism and higher health care coverage costs), lower returns on human capital investments, reduced domestic consumption and lower tax revenues, as well as increased public health and social welfare expenditures.

 


 

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