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The Sample Registration System (SRS) is carried out by the Office of the Registrar General and Census Commissioner, India with the goal of providing accurate annual estimates of birth rates, death rates, child mortality rates and many other indices of pregnancy and fertility and mortality. The SRS has been providing data for the estimation of various mortality measures since its inception. The report provides mortality indices at the national and state levels, as well as death rates at the sub-state, viz. NSS Natural Division Level.  

The key findings of the Sample Registration System Statistical Report 2018 (released in June 2020), published by the Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, are as follows (please click here to access):

 

Crude Death Rate (CDR)

• Crude Death Rate (CDR), which is defined as the number of deaths in a year per thousand population, at the national level, stood at 6.2 in 2018. It was 6.7 in rural areas and 5.1 in urban areas. For all bigger states/ UTs, except West Bengal, the CDR in rural areas was higher than that in urban areas. For West Bengal, CDR in rural (CDR 5.6) and urban (CDR 5.7) areas were almost identical, which makes the state the closest to the Line of Equity vis-à-vis other states/ UTs.

• States that exhibited large differences between urban CDR and rural CDR in 2018 were: Telangana (3 points), Punjab (2.6), Tamil Nadu (2.5), Andhra Pradesh (2.4), Karnataka (2.4), Chhattisgarh (2.3 points) and Himachal Pradesh (2.3). The difference is calculated as Urban CDR - Rural CDR = Difference in CDRs.

• The top 5 states with the highest CDRs in 2018 were: Chhattisgarh (8.0), Odisha (7.3), Kerala (6.9), Himachal Pradesh (6.9) and Andhra Pradesh (6.7).

• Between the periods 2006-08 and 2016-18, the average CDR at the national level changed by –14.9 percentage points. Between the above-said time points, CDR declined for all states, except Kerala, which showed an increase of 6 percentage points possibly due to the changes in age structure of its population.

 

Infant Mortality Rate (IMR)

• Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) is defined as the number of infant (less than one year of age) deaths per one thousand live births during the year.

• IMR has seen a substantial decline over the years, from 129 per 1000 live births in 1971 to 110 in 1981 and from 80 in 1991 to 32 in 2018.

• At the national level, IMR was 36.8 in rural areas and 22.9 in urban areas during the period 2016-18. However, IMR was 36 in rural areas and 23 in urban areas in 2018.

• In 2018, Kerala had the lowest IMR of 7 and Madhya Pradesh had the highest IMR of 48.

• In 2018, at the national level, IMR among male infants stood at 32, while that for female infants it was 33.

• For the year 2018, in all states except Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Delhi, Gujarat, Haryana, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Odisha, Punjab, Tamil Nadu, Telangana and Uttarakhand, female infants experienced a higher mortality rate as compared to male infants.

• In 2018, Jharkhand had the highest difference between male IMR (27) and female IMR (34), followed by Bihar with a large difference between male IMR (30) and female IMR (35). As opposed to that, in Madhya Pradesh male IMR (51) exceeded female IMR (46).

• In 2018, Assam witnessed the highest inequity between rural and urban IMRs with its rural IMR at 44 and urban IMR at 20. States like West Bengal (Urban IMR 20, Rural IMR 22), Punjab (Urban IMR 19, Rural IMR 21), Uttarakhand (Urban IMR 29, Rural IMR 31) and Bihar (Urban IMR 30, Rural IMR 32) had the least inequity between rural and urban IMR.

• Between 2006-08 and 2016-18, the average IMR declined by -40.3 percent. In rural areas, decline in IMR between the above-said time points ranged from -63.9 percentage points in Delhi to -32.2 percentage points in Chhattisgarh. The highest fall in IMR in urban areas between the above-said time points was noticed in Delhi i.e. -56.4 percent.

 

Neonatal Mortality Rate

• Neo-natal Mortality Rate (NMR) is defined as the number of infant (less than 29 days) deaths per one thousand live births during the year.

• In 2018, at the national level, NMR was 23, while in rural and urban areas, they were 27 and 14, respectively.

• In 2018, NMR was the lowest in Kerala at 5 and highest in Madhya Pradesh at 35.

• At the national level, the percentage of neo-natal deaths to total infant deaths was 71.7 percent in 2018, and it was 60.1 percent in urban areas and 74.4 percent in rural areas. It means that most infants die when they are not even 30 days old.

 

Perinatal Mortality Rate

• Peri-natal mortality rate (PMR) is defined as the number of still births and infant deaths of less than 7 days per 1,000 live births (LB) and still births (SB) taken together during the year.

• At the national level, PMR has been estimated to be 22 in 2018. It was 25 in rural areas and 14 in urban areas.

• In 2018, Madhya Pradesh had the highest PMR at 30 and Kerala had the lowest PMR at 10.

 

Still Birth Rate

• Still Birth Rate (SBR) is defined as the ratio of the number of still births per one thousand live births and still births taken together.

• At the national level, the SBR has been estimated to be 4 in 2018.

• In 2018, the highest SBR has been estimated for Odisha (10) and lowest have been estimated for Jammu and Kashmir and Jharkhand (i.e. 1 each).

 

Under-five Mortality Rate (U5MR)

• Under-five Mortality Rate (U5MR) is the probability of dying between birth and exactly age 5, expressed per 1,000 live births.

• At the national level, U5MR has been estimated to be 36 in 2018. In urban areas, the U5MR in 2018 has been estimated to be 26 while in rural areas, it has been estimated to be 40.

• Estimated U5MR was the lowest in Kerala at 10 and was the highest in Madhya Pradesh at 56.

• At the national level, female U5MR (37) was higher than the male U5MR (36) in 2018.

• In 2018, female U5MRs were higher than that of male U5MR in all states except in Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Delhi, Gujarat, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Odisha, Punjab, Tamil Nadu and Uttarakhand.

 

Age-Specific Mortality Rates (ASMR)

• Age-specific Mortality Rate (ASMR), is defined as the number of deaths in a particular age-group per thousand population of the same age-group during the year.

5-14 Age Group
    
• At the national level, the ASDR for the 5-14 age group has been estimated to be 0.5 in 2018.

• In 2018, the lowest ASDR for the 5-14 age group was found for Kerala and Assam (0.2 each) and the highest ASDR for the 5-14 age group was observed in case of Bihar, Odisha, Madhya and Chhattisgarh (0.7 each).

• At the national level, although ASDR for the 5-14 age group was the same for males and females in urban areas (0.4 each), ASDR for the 5-14 age group among females was 0.6 and among males was 0.5 in rural areas.

15-59 Age Group

• At the national level, ASDR for the 15-59 age group has been estimated to be 3.2 in rural areas and 2.3 in urban areas. At the national level, the ASDR for the 15-59 age group was 2.9 in 2018.

• In 2018, the female ASDR for the 15-59 age group was lower than that of male ASDR for the 15-59 age group in all the states.

60 and Above Age Group

• At the national level, ASDR for the 60 and above age group has been estimated to be 42.6.

• ASDR for the 60 and above age group among males (45.9) was greater than that among females (39.5). The same trend existed for rural and urban areas.

• ASDR for the 60 and above age group has been estimated to be the highest in Chhattisgarh (58.9) and lowest in Delhi (28.3).

 

Sex Ratio at Birth (SRB)

• Sex Ratio at Birth (SRB) is defined as the number of female births per 1000 male births during the year.

• The 3 years’ average of SRB (in the period 2016-18) has been estimated to be 899. At the national level, it was 900 in rural areas and 897 in urban areas.

• For 2016-18, the average SRB was the highest in Chhattisgarh at 958 and it was the lowest in Uttarakhand at 840.

• In rural areas, Chhattisgarh had the highest SRB of 976 and Haryana had the lowest SRB of 840 in the period 2016-18.  

• In urban areas, Madhya Pradesh had the highest SRB of 968 and Uttarakhand had the lowest SRB at 810 in the period 2016-18.

 

[Meghana Myadam and Sakhi Arun Jagdale, who are doing their MA in Development Studies (1st year) from Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Hyderabad, assisted the Inclusive Media for Change team in preparing the summary of the report by the Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner. They did this work as part of their summer internship at the Inclusive Media for Change project in July 2020.]


 

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