Towards a more equitable post-pandemic growth -S Mahendra Dev
-The Indian Express
Vaccination, expansion in rural healthcare and cash transfers should be part of the strategy to boost demand and address inequalities.
The second wave of the pandemic is receding although it continues to have a significant adverse impact on lives, livelihoods and the economy. Meanwhile, the threat of a third wave is looming large. The impact of the pandemic on the economy is expected to be lower this time as the lockdown is less stringent. However, one difference between the first wave and second wave is that the latter is spreading to rural areas also. It is known that rural areas have poor health infrastructure. Similar to the first wave, inequalities are also increasing during the second wave. Thus, India has to address both growth and inequality issues.
The overall GDP growth would be less than the earlier expectations — the GDP growth in 2021-22 is expected to be around 8 per cent. The level of real GDP in 2019-20 was Rs 145.7 lakh crore. At the end of 2021-22, the level of GDP may be the same or lower than that in 2019-20. In other words, India would have zero per cent or negative growth over the two-year period FY20 to FY22. This is on top of the continuous slowdown of the economy during the eight quarters preceding the pandemic. India may become a $5-trillion economy only in 2026-27 or beyond with the assumption of 12 per cent nominal growth in the next few years. In other words, much more effort is required to compensate for the lost growth and put the economy on a higher growth path.
The country has to address the issue of rising inequalities for achieving higher sustainable growth and the well-being of a larger population. Inequalities were increasing earlier also, but the first and second waves of the pandemic have widened them further. The State of Working in India 2021 report of the Azim Premji University revealed that both poverty and inequality increased during the first wave. According to this report, the pandemic would push 230 million people into poverty. CMIE data shows a decline in incomes and rising unemployment during the second wave. In the week ended May 16, 2021, around 56 per cent of households reported a loss of income compared to a year ago. Unemployment increased to 14.5 per cent in the same week and it is high in rural areas also. India is suffering from a job crisis. The recent RBI Bulletin says that the impact of the second wave appears to be U-shaped. “In the well of the U are the most vulnerable — blue collar groups who have to risk exposure for a living and for rest of society to survive; doctors and healthcare workers; law and order and municipal personnel; individuals eking out daily livelihood; small business, organised and unorganised — and they will warrant priority in policy intervention.”
The recovery seemed to be K-shaped during the first wave. The share of wages declined as compared to that of profits. A large part of the corporate sector could manage the pandemic with many listed companies recording higher profits. On the other hand, the informal workers including daily wage labourers, migrants, MSMEs etc. suffered a lot with loss of incomes and employment. The recovery post the second wave is also likely to be K-shaped with rising inequalities.
Please click here to read more.
The Indian Express, 25 May, 2021, https://indianexpress.com/article/opinion/columns/covid-pandemic-economic-growth-second-wave-7328805/
Tagged with: Rural Areas Health Infrastructure Rural Health Infrastructure Pandemic First wave Second wave State of Working in India 2021 Informal workers Development Financial Institution K-shaped recovery MSMEs Daily wage labourers Micro Small and Medium Enterprises